M2.05. Recording and reviewing the mentoring process

4. Feedback provision methods and techniques

In order to provide feedback in an effective, efficient and successful way, it is worth to learn about feedback provision methods and techniques, including:

  • I-message
  • information sandwich
  • FUO model
  • model "keep it up"


I-message - it is to express one's feelings related to some situation and to formulate one's expectations concerning this situation.
The I-message includes four parts:

  • FEELING – we describe our current feelings related to a given situation – I feel
  • SITUATION – we present facts, description of a specific situation – when you
  • RESULT – we indicate results of a given situation (its consequences) – because
  • EXPECTATION – we disclose our expectations concerning the mentee – I want you to

We formulate the I-message with use of the following phrases: I feel / when you / because / I want you to

Remember! The I-message does not include assessments, focuses attention (of mentor and mentee) on action, facts, not on a person. It facilitates the problem solution, simultaneously not causing negative emotions and not violating the speakers' limits. It focuses attention on important issues and allows for the adjustment of behaviour. It is the clear information on the addresser's feelings and needs, thus making communication more specific and honest.
Thanks to the I-message development principles, it performs well e.g. in the superior-subordinate communication or between persons with a large age difference.


Information sandwich is the feedback provision method in which we include praise and criticism against the learner. We start from positive information. Then we say what is wrong, that is we communicate negative information. At the end, we say something positive to end optimistically.
The information sandwich scheme is as follows:



The third model of feedback provision is FUO

The FUO model is an acronym of names of parts that form it:

  • FACTS (F) – naming, defining a specific behaviour
  • ATTITIUDE (U) – definition of emotions and one's response to the learner's given behaviour in the area/place of work – consequences for me/company resulting from the other person's behaviour
  • EXPECTATION (O) – information on the preferred and/or recommended (by us as a mentor) behaviour



The fourth feedback provision model is named: "keep it up" (it is named also "square in square")

The "keep it up" model contains five elements:

  1. Start doing something you have not been doing so far and what would contribute to the improvement of your performance
  2. Stop doing something that puts you off achieving good results
  3. More – do more of what you have already been doing, but what, when intensified, would let you improve your performance
  4. Less – reduce intensity of works that do not require such an expenditure of labour or can be reduced without harming the results
  5. Keep it up – what works very well and what is worth of being continued